Nowadays, there is a huge number of nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders, or vice versa - drowsiness, poor appetite, night blindness, cracks on the lips and in the corners of the mouth ("perleches"), acne, boils, frequent "barley", easily arise bleeding in the skin, bleeding gums, which became the main cause of polyhypovitaminosis.
Worn clinical history, the absence of pathognomonic symptoms, lack of laboratory diagnostic methods lead to more widespread hypovitaminosis.
Also, polyhypovitaminosis develops on the background of peoplesí lifestyle. The majority of them live in large metropolitan areas, use bad food products, produced with the aid of new technologies: refined products, products of long-term storage, which contain virtually no vitamins. Micronutrient deficiencies in conventional power is almost inevitable.
Situation is exacerbated by the wide dissemination of harmful habits (smokers need an additional 35 mg of vitamin C), inadequate food technologies (loss of 80-90% of B vitamins on the way from grain to bread), contamination of the environment (increased consumption of vitamins, antioxidants) and geochemical characteristics (low iodine content in water).
A number of diseases of the internal organs leads to lower levels of vitamins in the body: the Biermer's disease, gastritis, specific malabsorption of vitamin B12. Enteritis, accompanied by malabsorption syndrome, even at early stages can lead to a marked reduction in the content of vitamin B6.
Due to the fact that health care today has almost no opportunity to examine the population widely to identify the levels of vitamins and trace elements in different regions, we can conclude that the problem is much deeper than it is dates in the literature.
In such situation it becomes necessary for a regular prophylactic vitamin-mineral complexes, containing micronutrients in doses not exceeding the daily requirement.
Classification of vitamins and their biological role in the body
Vitamin B1, as a thiamine pyrophosphate, is an integral part of at least four enzymes, involved in the intermediate metabolism.
B1 - one of the most important vitamins in energy metabolism during pregnancy. When deficiency of vitamin B1 slows down the conversion of carbohydrates into lipids, steroids and reduces the synthesis of acetylcholine.
Vitamin B2 is involved in the construction of visual purple, protects the retina from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays and, together with vitamin A provides normal vision - keen perception of color and light, dark adaptation. Riboflavin improves the condition of the nervous system, skin, mucous membranes, liver. In a certain way it stimulates the formation of blood.
Vitamin PP expands the small peripheral vessels, thereby improving blood circulation and metabolism in the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
Pantothenic acid is essential for the growth process, especially in the embryonic period.
A diet low in vitamin B12 and high folate (e.g. vegetarian) is often a hidden cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is important that signs of B12 hypovitaminosis develop gradually. For clinical signs of vitamin B12 deficiency may take more than five years after its reserves in the body are no longer replenished.
Women with a lack of vitamin B12 in the body are exposed to an increased risk of infertility and recurrent miscarriages. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in the process of ovulation.
Vitamin C regulates the functions of the nervous system, stimulates the activity of the endocrine glands, especially the adrenal glands, improves liver function.
Vitamin A is involved in the formation of the skeleton, ensures the normal functioning of the epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, respiratory, urinary tract, digestive tract.
Vitamin D affects the overall metabolism in the metabolism of calcium (Ca2 +), and phosphate (NRO2-4). An important effect of vitamin in this process is to increase the permeability of the intestinal epithelium for calcium and phosphorus.
Significance of vitamin D in the body - its involvement in bone mineralization.
Vitamin D can be regarded as a vitamin, and as a hormone.
Tocopherol or Vitamin E is involved in the processes of tissue respiration, metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It acts like an antioxidant, inhibiting the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, preventing the formation of peroxides. Vitamin E plays an important role in maintaining the stability of cell membranes and subcellular structures. Vitamin E stimulates the muscles, contributing to the accumulation of glycogen and normalizing metabolism, increases the resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis, slows the aging of body tissues, supports the immune system.