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Cough in children: what are the causes and treatment methods?

Among the most frequent pathologies in children and adults are respiratory diseases. There are many causes of them, but the most often is viral infection. The incidence of respiratory diseases is affected by climate, season, narrowly-specific immunity. Concentration of population in cities and public transport contribute to the high incidence of this condition. Thus, in rural areas, respiratory disease is lower than in urban areas.

Symptoms of respiratory disease are varied and depend on the cause of the disease and the localization process. One of the main symptoms is cough. Often it is the reason for seeking medical help and reason for prescribed special therapy.

Caused by contraction of the muscles of the chest and diaphragm, due to irritation of cough receptors, cough is forced out through the mouth.

Depending on symptoms, there are different kinds of cough. The most common characteristic - acute or chronic cough. In the first case, the symptoms pass within 4 weeks. Second case takes longer time.

Dry cough occurs at the onset of respiratory disease. It is not accompanied by expectoration of sputum and felt as intrusive, disturbing the patient.

Paroxysmal dry cough with difficult exhalation occurs in patients with bronchial asthma.

Dry cough is accompanied by expectoration of sputum, which may be mucous or purulent. In children with acute respiratory diseases this type of cough indicates of the resolution process, with chronic lung disease - a worsening of the disease.

Larynx, trachea and main bronchi are the places where cough receptors are mainly located. Certain receptors are found in the middle ear cavity, the pericardium and the diaphragm.

The appearance of cough occurs in two stages:

- fast breath with open glottis

- sharp rise in pressure in the trachea due to the reduction of respiratory muscles in the closed glottis

In addition to the efficiency of the cough reflex, the efficiency of cough affects the nature of bronchial secretions, lining the inner surface of the trachea and bronchi. Bronchial secretion is a layer of mucus, which moistens the air you breathe, it normalizes temperature precipitates and evacuates dust, capturing microbes and their toxins. Its mechanically protects the epithelium from microorganisms and has a bacteriostatic action.

The effectiveness of cough depends on bronchial secretion properties intensity, such as: viscosity, elasticity and fluidity. Therefore, complex therapy of patients with respiratory diseases, particularly, chronic and recurrent inflammatory lung diseases, should include drugs, that reduce the viscosity and elasticity and improve sputum expectoration. There are many drugs with such action. This preparations are based on vegetable extracts, and synthetic agents.

Among such drugs, the most widely used in pediatric practice and preferable among patients is Lasolvan ( ambroxol hydrochloride ), manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH. Lasolvan is an active metabolite of bromhexine - synthetic alkaloid. Ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) , which is the basis of the drug, liquefies phlegm due to stimulation of serous gland cells of the bronchial mucosa, normalizing the ratio of serous components sputum, stimulating the production of enzymes, that break down the relationship between mucopolysaccharides sputum, as well as surfactant, which also normalizes sputum rheology, reducing its viscosity and adhesive properties.
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